(Dr. W. Jean Dodds)
This page describes Articles and Protocols which contain important Information.
Please do NOT accept the info you read on this page or ANY other page in this or any website as GOSPEL. Instead, read, learn,
study some more, then form your own conclusion after consulting with your own Veterinarian.
Dr. Jean Dodd's VACCINE SCHEDULE
DR DODDs CONTACT INFO HEMOPET CONTACT
Dr. Jean Dodds:
Home Office: (Mon/Tues/Fri)
Phone 310/ 828-4804 --Pacific Time
Fax: 310/ 828-8251
938 Stanford St.
Santa Monica, CA 90403 USA
Hemopet Office: (Wed/Thurs)
Phone: 714-891-2022 -- PST
11330 Markon Dr
Garden Grove, CA 92841 USA
Please Note: Callers need to be considerate, and in an Emergency, -- explain
it clearly-- because Dr. Dodds may be near the answering machine. When dealing with a non-emergency situation, please don't
call between 8 pm and 8 am Pacific Time, and also Friday night thru Saturday night, as that is her prayer time.
Titer Test FormsThat You Can Print out
Quote from Dr Jean Dodds: "This schedule is the protocol I recommend and should
NOT be interpreted to mean that other protocols recommended by another veterinarian would be less satisfactory. It's a matter
of professional judgement and choice."
For breeds or families of dogs susceptible to or effected with immune dysfunction,
immune-mediated disease, immune-reactions associated with vaccinations, or autoimmune endocrine disease (e.g., thyroiditis,
Addison's or Cushing's disease, diabetes, etc.), the following protocol is recommended:
VACCINATION PROTOCOL - 2005
Note: The following vaccine protocol is offered for those dogs where minimal
vaccinations are advisable or desirable. The schedule is one I recommend and should not interpreted to mean that other protocols
recommended by a veterinarian would be less satisfactory. It's a matter of professional judgment and choice.
AGE OF PUP VACCINE TYPE
9 - 10 weeks
Distemper + Parvovirus, MLV (e.g.
Intervet Progard Puppy DPV)
14 weeks Same as above
16 -18 weeks (optional) Same as above
20 weeks or older, if allowable by law Rabies
Distemper + Parvovirus, MLV
Rabies, killed 3-year product
(give 3-4 weeks apart from distemper/parvovirus booster)
Perform vaccine antibody titers for distemper and parvovirus annually thereafter.
Vaccinate for rabies virus according to the law, except where circumstances indicate that a written waiver needs to be obtained
from the primary care veterinarian. In that case, a rabies antibody titer can also be performed to accompany the waiver request.
ONLY a vet may submit blood for the titers. Antech Lab, NYC 1-800 872 -1001
(who does our Combo Titers), and also through Hemopet who will also do the Rabies titer . They titer for Distemper, Parvo,
Corona at a total cost of $75 PER DOG. Lepto titers are not
diagnostic yet (in other words they can titer for it, but haven't developed a proven Titer for Lepto yet), so if you have
Lepto in the area, you should get the vaccine if your vet suggests. Some small dogs react to Lepto vaccines.....so many recommend
not to vaccinate unless you have to.
Antech Lab, NYC 1-800 872 -1001
Hemopet Office: (Wed/Thurs)
Phone: 714-891-2022 --Pacific Time
11330 Markon Dr
Garden Grove, CA 92841 USA
Jean Dodds recommends that a bitch should be tested before breeding and it
should be done on a yearly basis.
She also suggests the use of SBGAand
Echinacea purpurea/ Echinacea augustifolia as a boost to their immune systems. The SBGA is a much more dependable and
PROVEN supplement, and Echinacea has proven immune system benefits as well.
W. Jean Dodds, DVM
938 Stanford Street
Santa Monica, CA 90403
(310) 828-4804; FAX (310) 828-8251
The challenge to produce effective and safe vaccines for the prevalent infectious
diseases of humans and animals has become increasingly difficult. In veterinary medicine, evidence implicating vaccines in
triggering immune-mediated and other chronic disorders (vaccinosis) is compelling. While some of these problems have been
traced to contaminated or poorly attenuated batches of vaccine that revert to virulence, others apparently reflect the host’s
genetic predisposition to react adversely upon receiving the single (monovalent) or multiple antigen “combo” (polyvalent)
products given routinely to animals. Animals of certain susceptible breeds or families appear to be at increased risk for
severe and lingering adverse reactions to vaccines.
The onset of adverse reactions to conventional vaccinations (or other inciting
drugs, chemicals, or infectious agents) can be an immediate hypersensitivity or anaphylactic reaction, or can occur acutely
(24-48 hours afterwards), or later on (10-45 days) in a delayed type immune response often caused by immune-complex formation.
Typical signs of adverse immune reactions include fever, stiffness, sore joints and abdominal tenderness, susceptibility to
infections, central and peripheral nervous system disorders or inflammation, collapse with autoagglutinated red blood cells
and jaundice, or generalized pinpoint hemorrhages or bruises. Liver enzymes may be markedly elevated, and liver or kidney
failure may accompany bone marrow suppression. Furthermore, recent vaccination of genetically susceptible breeds has been
associated with transient seizures in puppies and adult dogs, as well as a variety of autoimmune diseases including those
affecting the blood, endocrine organs, joints, skin and mucosa, central nervous system, eyes, muscles, liver, kidneys, and
bowel. It is postulated that an underlying genetic predisposition to these conditions places other littermates and close relatives
at increased risk. Vaccination of pet and research dogs with polyvalent vaccines containing rabies virus or rabies vaccine
alone was recently shown to induce production of antithyroglobulin autoantibodies, a provocative and important finding with
implications for the subsequent development of hypothyroidism (Scott-Moncrieff et al, 2002).
Vaccination also can overwhelm the immunocompromised or even healthy host that
is repeatedly challenged with other environmental stimuli and is genetically predisposed to react adversely upon viral exposure.
The recently weaned young puppy or kitten entering a new environment is at greater risk here, as its relatively immature immune
system can be temporarily or more permanently harmed. Consequences in later life may be the increased susceptibility to chronic
As combination vaccines contain antigens other than those of the clinically
important infectious disease agents, some may be unnecessary; and their use may increase the risk of adverse reactions. With
the exception of a recently introduced mutivalent Leptospira spp. vaccine, the other leptospirosis vaccines afford little
protection against the clinically important fields strains of leptospirosis, and the antibodies they elicit typically last
only a few months. Other vaccines, such as for Lyme disease, may not be needed, because the disease is limited to certain
geographical areas. Annual revaccination for rabies is required by some states even though there are USDA licensed rabies
vaccine with a 3-year duration. Thus, the overall risk-benefit ratio of using certain vaccines or multiple antigen vaccines
given simultaneously and repeatedly should be reexamined. It must be recognized, however, that we have the luxury of asking
such questions today only because the risk of disease has been effectively reduced by the widespread use of vaccination programs.
Given this troublesome situation, what are the experts saying about these issues?
In 1995, a landmark review commentary focused the attention of the veterinary profession on the advisability of current vaccine
practices. Are we overvaccinating companion animals, and if so, what is the appropriate periodicity of booster vaccines ?
Discussion of this provocative topic has generally lead to other questions about the duration of immunity conferred by the
currently licensed vaccine components.
In response to questions posed in the first part of this article, veterinary
vaccinologists have recommended new protocols for dogs and cats. These include: 1) giving the puppy or kitten vaccine series
followed by a booster at one year of age; 2) administering further boosters in a combination vaccine every three years or
as split components alternating every other year until; 3) the pet reaches geriatric age, at which time booster vaccination
is likely to be unnecessary and may be unadvisable for those with aging or immunologic disorders. In the intervening years
between booster vaccinations, and in the case of geriatric pets, circulating humoral immunity can be evaluated by measuring
serum vaccine antibody titers as an indication of the presence of immune memory. Titers do not distinguish between immunity
generated by vaccination and/or exposure to the disease, although the magnitude of immunity produced just by vaccination is
usually lower (see Tables).
Except where vaccination is required by law, all animals, but especially those
dogs or close relatives that previously experienced an adverse reaction to vaccination can have serum antibody titers measured
annually instead of revaccination. If adequate titers are found, the animal should not need revaccination until some future
date. Rechecking antibody titers can be performed annually, thereafter, or can be offered as an alternative to pet owners
who prefer not to follow the conventional practice of annual boosters. Reliable serologic vaccine titering is available from
several university and commercial laboratories and the cost is reasonable (Twark and Dodds, 2000; Lappin et al, 2002; Paul
et al, 2003; Moore and Glickman, 2004).
Relatively little has been published about the duration of immunity following
vaccination, although new data are beginning to appear for both dogs and cats.
Our recent study (Twark and Dodds, 2000), evaluated 1441 dogs for CPV antibody
titer and 1379 dogs for CDV antibody titer. Of these, 95.1 % were judged to have adequate CPV titers, and nearly all (97.6
%) had adequate CDV titers. Vaccine histories were available for 444 dogs (CPV) and 433 dogs (CDV). Only 43 dogs had been
vaccinated within the previous year, with the majority of dogs (268 or 60%) having received a booster vaccination 1-2 years
beforehand. On the basis of our data, we concluded that annual revaccination is unnecessary. Similar findings and conclusions
have been published recently for dogs in New Zealand
(Kyle et al, 2002), and cats (Scott and Geissinger, 1999; Lappin et al, 2002). Comprehensive studies of the duration of serologic
response to five viral vaccine antigens in dogs and three viral vaccine antigens in cats were recently published by researchers
at Pfizer Animal Health ( Mouzin et al, 2004).
When an adequate immune memory has already been established, there is little
reason to introduce unnecessary antigen, adjuvant, and preservatives by administering booster vaccines. By titering annually,
one can assess whether a given animal’s humoral immune response has fallen below levels of adequate immune memory. In
that event, an appropriate vaccine booster can be administered.
Dodds WJ. More bumps on the vaccine road. Adv Vet Med 41:715-732, 1999.
Dodds WJ. Vaccination protocols for dogs predisposed to vaccine reactions.
J Am An Hosp Assoc 38: 1-4, 2001.
Hogenesch H, Azcona-Olivera J, Scott-Moncreiff C, et al. Vaccine-induced autoimmunity
in the dog. Adv Vet Med 41: 733-744, 1999.
Carpenter T, Sawyer DC, et
al. Vaccination issues of concern to practitioners. J Am Vet Med Assoc 214: 1000-1002, 1999.
Kyle AHM, Squires RA, Davies PR. Serologic status and response to vaccination
against canine distemper (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) of dogs vaccinated at different intervals. J Sm An Pract, June
Lappin MR, Andrews J, Simpson D, et al. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance
to feline herpesvirus 1, feline calicivirus, and feline parvovirus infection in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 220: 38-42, 2002.
McGaw DL, Thompson M, Tate, D, et al. Serum distemper virus and parvovirus
antibody titers among dogs brought to a veterinary hospital for revaccination. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213: 72-75, 1998.
Moore GE, Glickman
LT. A perspective on vaccine guidelines and titer tests for dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224: 200-203. 2004.
Lorenzen M J, Haworth, et al. Duration of serologic response to five viral antigens in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224: 55-60,
Lorenzen M J, Haworth, et al. Duration of serologic response to three viral antigens in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc 224: 61-66,
Paul MA. Credibility in the face of controversy. Am An Hosp Assoc Trends Magazine
Paul MA (chair) et al. Report of the AAHA Canine Vaccine Task Force: 2003 canine
vaccine guidelines, recommendations, and supporting literature. AAHA, April 2003, 28 pp.
Schultz RD. Current and future canine and feline vaccination programs. Vet
Med 93:233-254, 1998.
Ford RB, Olsen J, Scott F. Titer testing and vaccination: a new look at traditional practices. Vet Med, 97: 1-13, 2002 (insert).
Scott FW, Geissinger CM. Long-term immunity in cats vaccinated with an inactivated
trivalent vaccine. Am J Vet Res 60: 652-658, 1999.
Scott-Moncrieff JC, Azcona-Olivera J, Glickman NW, et al. Evaluation of antithyroglobulin
antibodies after routine vaccination in pet and research dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 221: 515-521, 2002.
Are we vaccinating too much? J Am Vet Med Assoc 207:421-425, 1995.
Tizard I, Ni Y. Use of serologic testing to assess immune status of companion
animals. J Am Vet Med Assoc 213: 54-60, 1998.
Twark L, Dodds WJ. Clinical application of serum parvovirus and distemper virus
antibody titers for determining revaccination strategies in healthy dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 217:1021-1024, 2000.
Table 1. “Core” Vaccines *
Distemper Feline Parvovirus
* Vaccines that every dog and cat should have
Table 2. Adverse Reaction Risks for Vaccines *
“There is less risk associated with taking a blood sample for a titer
test than giving an unnecessary vaccination.”
* Veterinary Medicine, February, 2002.
Table 3. Titer Testing and Vaccination *
“While difficult to prove, risks associated with overvaccination are
an increasing concern among veterinarians. These experts say antibody titer testing may prove to be a valuable tool in determining
your patients’ vaccination needs.”
* Veterinary Medicine, February, 2002.
Table 4. Vaccine Titer Testing *
“Research shows that once an animal’s titer stabilizes,
it is likely to remain constant for many years.”
* Veterinary Medicine, February, 2002.
W. Jean Dodds, DVM, is an internationally recognized authority on thyroid issues
in dogs and blood diseases in animals. In the mid-1980's she founded Hemopet, the first nonprofit blood bank for animals.
Dr. Dodds is a grantee of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and author of over 150 research publications. Through
Hemopet she provides canine blood components and blood-bank supplies throughout North America,
consults in clinical pathology, and lectures worldwide.